Types of mulches/soil covers
There are different types of mulch, the choice of which type should be based on the needs of each product or each region.
Mulches are classified into two types: organic and inorganic:
– Organic or biological mulches include natural materials such as dry grass, straw, stubble, tree bark, chopped wood, leaves, sawdust and compost.
– Inorganic or chemical mulches are covers made of plastic or polyethylene with a thickness of 0.9-2 mm, which are spread on the soil.
Types of mulch films:Transparent mulch film: Transparent films have been used for a variety of crops for years. This film is more efficient than all films for warming the soil. The disadvantage of these films is that they do not prevent weeds, so herbicides must be used.
Black Mulch Film: These covers absorb visible light (photosynthesis) and thus significantly reduce weeds below the area covered by the film.
Black/White Mulch Film: This film is opaque black on one side, blocking visible light while the other side is white, partially reflecting visible light, thereby preventing sheet overheating and damage. Prevents fruit.
Colored mulch films: films with selective light transmission, films that warm the soil on the one hand, and reduce weeds on the other hand. The color of the film has a major effect on the amount of soil heating and the types of insects attracted. These films are available in brown, green, yellow and blue colors.Reflective films: Films that partially reflect UV rays, blinding insects and thereby reducing crop damage.
Multicolor Films: Films that combine the advantages of black or brown films in reducing weeds and the advantage of selective films in preventing crop diseases. The color of the films can be adapted according to the type of product and the growing season.
Plastic mulch or plastic mulchMulch films (Film mulch) are any kind of cover that is used to protect and improve the quality of the soil on the soil surface. expands
The benefits of using this organic mulch include improving the soil structure, improving the capacity and maintaining soil moisture, protecting the soil against erosion, adding nutrients and organic matter to the soil, and controlling weeds.All kinds of plastic mulches are increasing in order to obtain more yield and early harvest of plants, especially for heat-loving species such as pepper, corn, tomato and ivy plants. Since 1960, many researches and advances have been made regarding soil in order to achieve easier, less expensive and more environmentally friendly use.In the last 10 years, these developments have led to innovations in this field, including the technology of making plastics in agriculture such as colored mulches. Plastic mulch is used in agriculture, horticulture, soil protection, quicksand stabilization and green space expansion, in order to reduce evaporation and prevent moisture loss from the soil surface, optimize operations and increase the quantity and quality of the product. Currently, the use of mulch has become a commercial issue in all countries.A wide variety of crops benefit from mulch coverings both in greenhouses and outdoors. Mulch nylons are used for purposes such as stabilization of loose sand in desert lands. Basically, in forest science, soil cover means a light and soft covering of the soil surface, which eliminates or reduces the competition of competing, invasive and unwanted grass plants.The thickness of these nylons is between 30 and 50 microns. Plastic mulch is available in different colors and sizes for different needs. The durability of mulches depends on their thickness. In plastic mulch, durability is an important factor. Most brittle and brittle plastics are capable of being used in culverts, but heavy winds can tear them apart. Strong plastics will hold up even after two cultivations. Today, most plastics are flexible and farmers can use them easily. Plastic mulch is placed in parallel lines on the surface of the prepared soil.The substrate should be free of plant debris and be secured by a heavy object on the sides of the soil. Mulch covers must stick firmly to the soil so that the heat transfer takes place well and it is prevented from being released and moved by the wind. Also, nylon mulches can be a barrier to prevent the release of the toxic gas “methyl bromide”, which is used to kill soil bacteria. Mulch covers allow farmers to use less methyl bromide.
Among the applications of these nylons, the following can be mentioned:
1- Avoiding direct contact between crops and soil
2-Saving water consumption
4-Soil temperature control
5-Soil disinfection before planting crops
6- Increasing vegetative growth and rooting of plants
7- Reducing labor costs
8-Reducing the amount of water evaporation from the soil surface
9- Product delivery
10- reducing the number of times of irrigation,
11- Increasing the efficiency of water consumption
12-Prevention of closing the basket
13- Preventing moisture stress and salt accumulation on the soil surface
14-Preventing soil erosion and reducing fertilizer leaching
15- Fight against drought and water shortage and reduce the volume of water consumption by 50%
Economic savings of using film mulch:
Bringing the product in advance and supplying it at the time of peak price, increasing the green area of the farm, increasing the yield three to four times, preventing pests and diseases and the growth of weeds and not using herbicides and pesticides, reducing the number of working hours and Better product quality increases the economic efficiency of the product. Along with the economic efficiency, the benefits of organic production should also be added. On average, about 130 kg of plastic is used for each summer hectare.